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In the Assyrian period, Sibittibaal of Byblos became tributary to Tiglath-pileser III in 738 BC, and in 701 BC, when Sennacherib conquered all Phoenicia, the king of Byblos was Urumilki.Byblos was also subject to Assyrian kings Esarhaddon (r. 668–627 BC), under its own kings Milkiasaph and Yehawmelek.According to the writer Philo of Byblos (quoting Sanchuniathon, and quoted in Eusebius), Byblos had the reputation of being the oldest city in the world, founded by Cronus.During the 3rd millennium BC, the first signs of a town can be observed, with the remains of well-built houses of uniform size.
Hellenistic rule came with the arrival of Alexander the Great in the area in 332 BC.It was much later referred to as Gibelet, during the Crusades. Gubal, Gebal, etc.) can be derived from gb, meaning "well" or "origin", and El, the name of the supreme god of Byblos' pantheon.The present-day city is known by the Arabic name Jbail or Jbeil (جبيل), a direct descendant of the Canaanite name.Although the archaeological evidence seems to indicate a brief resurgence during the 22nd and 23rd dynasties, it is clear after the Third Intermediate Period the Egyptians started favoring Tyre and Sidon instead of Byblos.Archaeological evidence at Byblos, particularly the five Byblian royal inscriptions dating back to around 1200-1000 BC, shows existence of a Phoenician alphabetic script of twenty-two characters; an important example is the sarcophagus of king Ahiram.